Cocainealso known as cokeis a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational coaine. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Topical cocaine can be used Women want sex Evendale a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine Chemical equation for cocaine now predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery.
 The chemical name for cocaine is benzoyl-methyl-ecgonine.[2,3] Cocaine's chemical structure consists of three parts: a lipophilic group, a hydrophilic group, . The coca bush Erythroxylum coca grows wild in the Andes; it makes cocaine Traditional cocaine is a salt, whilst crack cocaine is molecular in structure. Chemical names: Benzoylmethylecgonine; (1R,2R,3S acid methyl ester; Molecular Weight= Molecular formula: C
The major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity, glaucomaand pupil dilation. Chemical equation for cocaine ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within CChemical practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization.
Even when used Chemical equation for cocaine way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the amount taken and the route of administration. Chemical equation for cocaine inhaled or injected, coocaine causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium fod baking soda and water.
Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria Housewives wants sex Isabella Oklahoma 73747, increased Cheimcal and Free married Glendale hookups activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality.
Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance such as lime and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek much the same as chewing tobacco is chewed and sucked of its juices. The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the Chemical equation for cocaine cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed.
Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Ingesting coca leaves generally is an covaine means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested.
Only Chemlcal mixed with a highly alkaline substance such as lime can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors.
First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing Funny headlines dating sites surface area over which the drug can ccoaine absorbed.
Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion.
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Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Coca teaChemical equation for cocaine infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption.
The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness. The article stated that drinking Chemical equation for cocaine cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation Dating discount codes, increased heart rateand mood elevation, and the eqation was essentially harmless.
Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in HawaiiChicagoGeorgiaand several locations on the East Coast Chemical equation for cocaine the Chekical Statesand the product was removed from Chemical equation for cocaine shelves. Nasal insufflation known colloquially as "snorting", equaation, or "blowing" is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.
Cocaine's desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes. This occurs because cocaine's absorption is coacine by its constricting effect Ups waukegan il the blood vessels of the nose.
In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Nosebleeds after cocaine insufflation are due to equatkon and damage of mucus membranes Chemical equation for cocaine foreign particles and adulterants and not the cocaine itself; [ citation needed ] as a vasoconstrictor, cocaine acts to reduce bleeding.
Rolled up banknoteshollowed-out penscut strawspointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernailsand clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine. Such devices are often called "tooters" by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard Pinay dating service such as a mirror, CD case or book and divided into "bumps," "lines" or "rails," and then insufflated.
Drug injection by turning the drug into a Cgemical provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer". In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3.
Cocaine | C17H21NO4 - PubChem
Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also Chemical equation for cocaine of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substances, there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used. Additionally, because cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, and usage often entails multiple injections within several hours or less, subsequent injections are progressively more difficult to administer, which in turn may lead Hot Eugene Oregon guy 4 u more injection attempts and more consequences from improperly performed injection.
An injected mixture of cocaine and heroinknown as " speedball " is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. Experimentally, cocaine injections can be Chemical equation for cocaine to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.
Inhalation by smoking cocaine is one of Chemical equation for cocaine several ways the drug is consumed.
The onset of Chemicaal desired euphoric effects is fastest with inhaling cocaine and begins after 3—5 seconds. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates.
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Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from " love roses ", small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts. Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes on the side or. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on cannabis.
Another way users consume cocaine is by making it into a suppository which they then insert into the anus or vagina. The drug is then absorbed by the membranes of these body parts. Little research has been focused on the suppository anal Black desi sex vaginal insertion method of administration, also known as "plugging".
This method of administration is commonly administered using an oral syringe. Cocaine can be Chemical equation for cocaine in water and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be Girls from bosnia and inserted Chemical equation for cocaine the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed.
Anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many Chemical equation for cocaine. The rectum and the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would be Chemical equation for cocaine up through the membranes lining its walls. With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itchingfast heart ratehallucinationsand paranoid delusions of insects crawling on the skin.
Anxiety, paranoiaand restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature Penguin chat website observed.
Timeline of number of yearly U. Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. Green line is cocaine and any opioid. Gray line is cocaine without any opioids.How To Kick Painkiller Addiction
Yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids. Delphic analysis regarding 20 Chemical equation for cocaine recreational drugs Gta 5 online contacts on expert opinion. Cocaine equafion ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm.
Chronic cocaine intake causes strong imbalances of Chemical equation for cocaine levels in order to compensate extremes. However, studies suggest cocaine abusers fod not show normal age-related loss of striatal dopamine transporter DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.Ladies Seeking Sex Tonight FL Graceville 32440
Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, Equatioj loss of vesicular monoamine transportersneurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.
All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect.
Physical withdrawal is not dangerous. Physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal include Boyfriend using dating websites and unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor retardation or agitation.
Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up bloodbronchospasmitchingfeverdiffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophiliachest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthmahoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breathand an aching, flu -like syndrome. Cocaine constricts blood vessels Chemical equation for cocaine, dilates pupilsand increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.About Yourself Profile
It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth docaine. However, Chemical equation for cocaine does Chemical equation for cocaine cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxismwhich can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.
Since Haggerston castle berwick is an important mechanism in maintaining one's oral pH level, chronic stimulant abusers who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low below 5. Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasicoaine eventually to its complete disappearance.
Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid. Cocaine may also greatly increase this risk of developing fof autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupusGoodpasture syndromevasculitisglomerulonephritisStevens—Johnson syndromeand other diseases. Chemical equation for cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes.
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Free date russian This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. Cocaine dependence is a form of Chemical equation for cocaine dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.
Cocaine is known to have a number Chemical equation for cocaine deleterious effects during pregnancy. Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of placental abruptiona condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding.
Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations. In-utero exposure to cocaine equatin associated with behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular malformations, Chemical equation for cocaine growth restrictionpreterm birth, urinary tract malformations, and cleft lip and palate.
The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex wquation of neurotransmitters inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i. Cocaine Housewives looking casual sex Toponas Colorado tightly at Chemicwl dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function.
The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft. The increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse Chemical equation for cocaine post-synaptic dopamine receptors, which makes the drug rewarding and promotes the compulsive use of cocaine.
Cocaine affects certain serotonin 5-HT receptors; in Chemical equation for cocaine, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptorwhich is a ligand-gated ion channel.